adagio [It]—slow tempo, often implying a lyrical, poignant character
allegro—fast, lively tempo
chamber music, Kammermusik [G], Musique de chambre [F], Musica da camera [I]—"Classical Music" for a small ensemble, generally 8 or fewer players with a canonical emphasis on 3-6 players
duo, duet, dueto [S], duetto [I], duett [G]—a work for two instruments; the ensemble itself
minuet, menuet [F], Menuett [G], menuetto [I], minuetto [I]—A graceful, courtly French dance of the Baroque and Classical period with a triple meter and a moderate tempo.It was introduced at the court of Louis XIV. In classical forms such as the symphony or chamber music, the minuet evolved into the more vigorous scherzo.
sonata, sonate, suonato—a complicated term. Originally, "sounded" rather than "sung" (sonar vs. cantar), e.g. instrumental music. According to historical period, sonata began to imply a formal plan of movements as well as the structure within a single movement, e.g. sonata form. In general usage as a work title, it designates a multi-movement piece for solo or duo instruments with one of the instruments enjoying a feature role.
tema con variazioni, con variazioni, Tema e variazioni, theme and variations, Thema mit Variationen [G], Thème varié [F]—a common movement form featuring an initial theme followed by a series of variations on that theme, each of which adjusts any number of parameters to achieve variety, e.g. tempo, rhythm, key, instrumentation, etc.A challenge to the composers ingenuity and a delight for the listener
variation, variazione, variatio, variato, variata—a modified re-iteration of a previous theme, reprise, couplet, etc. The music is varied, embellished or creatively transformed for variety while maintaining a unity relationship with the original. See "Theme and Variations."
with thinking heart and feeling mind, I'll embody your muse, thy soul divine